Effective Interventions For Dyslexic Learners

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Dyslexia By: Please log in to see tutor details
Subject: Dyslexia
Last updated: 10/06/2018
Tags: dyslexia, teaching strategies

To explore the principles of effective instruction in order to design teaching for students with literacy difficulties.

Action Research uses a practitioner based research which involves thinking about and reflecting on your own work (Mcniff, 2002, p.4). The aspects of this action research project concentrate on applying the principles of effective instruction in order to design and implement a programme of intervention a student with literacy difficulties. This action research concentrates on the planning, implementation and evaluation of a cycle of 3 consecutive lessons (lessons 9, 10 & 11).

Context

The basis of this research was an assessment of DM (appendix 1), an 8 year old female, who has persistently struggled with reading and writing since joining the school in Year 1. According to Snowling and Hulme 2010, it is crucial to have a clear idea about the nature and origins of a given child's difficulties in order to plan a suitable educational intervention. With this in mind, an assessment along with discussions with DM's mother and class teacher helped to highlight her strengths and weaknesses and influenced the choice of intervention. Taking into consideration the time frame, it was agreed that as reading was a concern, a reading assessment would be used to informally monitor the impact of the intervention. A pleniminery reading assessment and the formation of a teaching plan (appendix  2) was followed by 12 sessions that were delivered by myself and supported by the class teacher to reinforce sounds learnt. Each cycle examined and reflected upon taking into account the needs of the pupil and the Egan Skilled Helper model was employed when collaborating with other members of staff. 

Teaching Approach

Any intervention to improve a child's educational skills should 'make sense' in terms how the child typically learns a skill and the nature of obstacles that may impede their learning (Snowling & Hulme, 2010, p. 4). Reading by Snowling & Hulme 2010, 2011, Partanen and Siegal 2013, Wolf and Katzir-Cohen 2009, Rose (2006), Reid 2009 and Miles 2007, argue that interventions to overcome difficulties in literacy should contain the following:

  • Training of phonological awareness;
  • Letter sound knowledge;
  • Targets and links orthography and phonology;
  • Develops automaticity;
  • Multi-sensory in its approach;
  • Overlearning and automaticity;
  • Highly structured and phonically based;
  • Sequential and cumulative.

After considerable research into appropriate intervention programmes, the Orton Gillingham approach featured all of the listed components. According to Green (2006) (cited in Reid, 2009, p.171), the Orton – Gillingham approach has considerable scope for building metacognitive and comprehension skills. In addition to this, research carried out by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in the United States, highlighted those strategies which Orton Gillingham incorporates, are the best for preventing and correcting reading problems (Reid, 2009, p. 166). 

The programme chosen based on the Orton-Gillingham approach, was The Hickey Multisensory Language Course, 3rd edition. This course according to Reid (2009) recognises the importance of the need to learn sequentially. It can be used in small groups, individually or in class and can be adapted to the needs and abilities of learners of all ages.  Its main strength is that is utilises visual, auditory and tactile- kinaesthetic channels of learning with a common goal (Reid 2009, p.171). According to the manual, multi-sensory learning ‘enables individuals to use their own approach to the tasks through utilising their strong areas and at the same time exercising their faulty ones’ (Combley, 2001, p. 17). 

The Hickey programme meets the criteria for a systematic synthetic phonics programme as advocated by the DFE (2010) and is systematic, synthetic and phonic in its prime approach. The third edition has been edited and revised as a result of feedback and now includes a section of the lesson teaching phonological awareness within a session.  The formats of lessons are highly structured and there are examples of worksheet, clear instructions of reading and spelling cards. The kinaesthetic nature of the programme helps to develop a learner’s memory and promotes and cultivates the use of joined up handwriting, which DM needs to improve. The manual does make it clear that you should adapt lessons as necessary, use your own judgement and be flexible.  Work on self -esteem was also incorporated into lessons. Each one hour lesson was delivered three times a week, with days in between allowing for independent consolidation work and revision with the class teacher.

The Teaching Sessions

At the beginning of the intervention, lessons were divided up into the following 10 parts. This proved to be extremely time consuming and the structure was revised to include the following:

  1. Alphabet work
  2. Visual / Auditory memory
  3. Revision exercise
  4. New Learning
  5. Reading activity
  6. Spelling Activity
  7. Review – included work on self- esteem
  8. Conclusion – tidy up routine
  1. 1. Alphabet Work

According to Combley (2001), it is important for the dyslexic pupil to have a comprehensive grasp of the alphabet. The dyslexic pupil needs help in understanding that the letters in the alphabet are symbols representing speech sounds which are the ingredients of words (Combley, 2001, p.51). In addition to this, Partanen and Siegal (2013), maintain that phonological awareness and letter knowledge are related concepts, whereby letter knowledge provides the foundation for acquiring phonological decoding and reading ability. 

Each session began with DM sorting wooden letters of the alphabet into an arc. The intervention initially highlighted considerable gaps in DM’s knowledge of letter formation and sequencing of the alphabet. By lesson 9, DM was able to match letter name to the corresponding grapheme and identify all the vowel names and sounds correctly. Although DM is now placing the letters in the correct sequence, she does tend to place them the wrong way round, in particular, the letters L, J and Z. One strategy suggested involved looking and feeling the neighbouring letter in relation to entry and exit points. This strategy along with the use of the a printed alphabet arc to use for self-correction helped DM to place the letter correctly. By lesson 11, DM was able to complete the alphabet arc methodically and correctly which gave her a real sense of achievement.  The alphabet session helped to develop DM's automaticity and helped DM to confidently name and sound her vowels.  

  1. 2. Visual /Auditory Memory

Naidoo (1972) ( citied in Combley, 2001,p.12), states that learning to read and spell depends the ability of a child to form automatic and permanent associations between what he sees, says and writes. Naidoo further maintains that sensory system required for the discrimination of sound symbols and for arranging these in sequential order, are visual, auditory, tactile-kinaesthetic and oral kinaesthetic. 

As part their model of automaticity, LaBerge and Sammual (1974) (cited in Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001) believe that within the first stages, if one is frequently exposed to visual stimuli such as letters, that this will result in letter perception becoming more automatic.

This part of the plan was devised to reinforce previous graphemes/phonemes learnt through naming previous letters learnt, saying their sound and recalling their clue word. The auditory element was linked to writing as this is something DM was keen to develop. DM demonstrated good recollection of the letters and sounds learnt and was also able to respond to oral instruction.

  1. 3. Revision

Reid (2009) states that one of the key points to take into account when planning to meet the needs for a dyslexic learner is a period of consolidation, which implies that overlearning is necessary. Reid (2009) maintains that this over-learning is essential for dyslexic students and needs to be planned for.  

Each revision session was carefully planned taking into account DM's needs from the previous lesson. The kinaesthetic approach was integrated into this part for example the use of cut up sentences and use of metacognition. As lessons progressed, plans were amended to allow more time for consolidation work. These sessions helped to develop DM's self-confidence as she was able to compare and comment on previous session's work, making progress made apparent. This part of the lesson also helped to instil independence as DM would often use available resources such as magnetic letters, when she felt the need,  to assist with spelling. Cut up sentences allowed DM to gain a visual representation of what an outcome and reinforced word order. This was carried out prior to the dictation and helped her to form the sentences. This was a strategy also suggested to the class teacher to adopt during lessons.

  1. 4. New Learning

Stimulus Response Routine (SRR)
A kinaesthetic and multisensory approach was used to introduce a new phoneme, using reading cards that were made by DM. The initial step involved the Stimulus Response Routine. The routine came with a script which could be adapted to the needs of the learner and it is left to the discretion of the teacher as to how relevant it is for the learner. Initially this routine prolonged the lesson as neither DM nor I were proficient in using it. I adapted the routine to be delivered in the first person and actions to accompany each stage. The actions helped DM to focus her attention and to respond appropriately. The nature of SRR helped to embed the letter name and sound for DM, thus helping with automaticity. 

Spelling Card
This part is enables the learner to use self-made spelling cards to in order to learn the spellings of phonemes – e.g.  /c/ - 'c', 'k', 'ck'. The routine nature of the task ensured that DM was able to recall previous spellings, however did confuse 'c' and 'k' when writing. This was remedied itself due to progress made during the session. The second cycle did highlight the need to develop DM's letter formation, particularly for letters 'n', 'p' , 's' and 'e'.

Multisensory Links
The SRR was originally followed by the phonological awareness activity using the new sound. However this structure inhibited the flow of the lesson and therefore was replaced by 'multi-sensory links'. This change made the two components link better and helped with pace and timings. Multi-sensory links comprised of activities such as sky writing, forming the grapheme in sand or glitter, feeling the wooden letter or using play dough. DM showed particular interest in using the glitter and felt secure in that letters formed in glitter were not recorded and therefore she was not 'put off' by her mistakes. This was a good way to lead into the handwriting section. Metacognition strategies helped DM to remember letter formation. For example, she commented whilst writing the letter 'd': 'd' is like writing 'a' but it has a stick.

Handwriting
Analysis of DM's classwork highlighted that her handwriting lacked formation and fluency. Her class teacher reported that DM take times to record any written work and that she does not like to share pieces of writing on the class visualizer. Studies carried out by Connelly et al (2006) found that writing skills of dyslexic university students that were poorer than their peers coincided with poor spelling and handwriting fluency. In another study conducted by Summer et al (2014) found that poor spelling in children with dyslexia constrained the rate of handwriting production more so than poor motor skills. Summer et al (2014, p.1446) concluded that spelling and handwriting needed to be automatic in order for children to succeed, even in a copying task. 

DM's difficulties in writing and spelling seem to be in line with this research and spelling and handwriritng are integrated into various part of the lesson plan. However the stand alone handwriting section focused on forming the phoneme being taught that particular lesson. Following the multisensory approach from the previous section, this element allowed DM to practise letter formation on lined paper. She concentrated well throughout these sessions and was encourage to pinpoint her favourite. 

Combley (2001) advocates a trace, copy, write from memory and write with eyes closed approach to letter formation. Combley (2001) maintains that tracing decreases the need for copying letter shapes and is a more certain way of securing the image. She further states that the learner must name and sound out the letters before writing in order to establish a permanent relationship between sound-name-shape of the phonogram (Combley, 2001, p.23). DM enjoyed this part of the lesson and like the challenge of the 'write with eyes shut'. She would try again if she was not satisfied with the outcomes. 

In the other writing elements of the plans, DM was encouraged to join her writing.  Analysis of work (Appendix 4 31.5.16/1.6.16) shows that generally words have been spelt correctly including those in dictated sentences.

Phonological Awareness

Phonological awareness generally refers to the ability of abstract and manipulates sound structures of spoken words (Naess, 2016, p.177). Goswami & Ziegler (2005, p.17) states:

'According to psycholinguistic grain size theory, a major cause of the early difficulty of reading acquisition is that phonology and orthography initially favor different grain sizes. Phonology favors larger grain sizes, whereas orthography favors small grain sizes (letters). Depending on the simplicity of the phonological structure of a given language or the degree of direct training in phoneme awareness provided, as the child learns letters the child discovers and isolates phonemes. This in turn augments the child's understanding that letters or letter clusters (graphemes) represent phonemes. The relationship between reading ability and phoneme awareness is necessarily reciprocal.'

Being very aware of her difficulties in reading, DM will avoid reading tasks during lessons which has worried both myself and her class teacher. Giving DM the ability to read, became a catalyst for the intervention. Taking into account research carried out by Goswami and Ziegler, the planned phonic awareness activities incorporated using syllabication and on-set and rime strategies for decoding and spelling. DM found these activities useful and applied strategies learnt to her reading in class. Initially DM would segment words into single phonemes and then try to blend as a reading strategy. Her initial observation showed that this technique did not work for her as she tended to forget the identified phonemes at the beginning of polysyllabic words. In addition to this, DM was unable to access the reading element of the assessment. The use of onset and rime proved to be a particularly successful strategy for DM particularly reading cvc and cvcc words (Appendix 4). As sessions progressed, DM became more confident is using on-set and rime and began to break away from trying to segment and blend phonemes (Appendix 4). 

A strategy for dividing and reading closed syllables was particularly approach that DM enjoyed. As she was fairly secure with her knowledge of vowels and consonants, DM was able to divide the syllables correctly in order to read the words (Appendix4). This particular activity gave DM a real sense of achievement as she as able to read words that she previously was unable to access (reflective journal). It also helped her to develop her knowledge of word along with her phonological awareness. I found that in accordance with readings, phoneme awareness begins to develop once a child has been taught to read and write irrespective of their age (Naess, 2016, p.178). 

Reading

Reading fluency refers to a process by which most of the words in a text are recognised automatically and their meanings accessed efficiently (Ari, 2015, p.688). The Hickey programme uses reading packs to enable a cumulative approach to reading and reading is taught reciprocally along with writing. Each lesson pupils are introduced to regular words, blends and irregular words that consist of only taught letter sounds. In addition to these, dependent on sounds being learnt, reading cards may also consist of vc/v, v/cv, vc/cv words as well as suffixes and prefixes. 

As lessons progressed, sentences comprising of words already learnt were incorporated into the sessions. Initially DM was encouraged to read the sentences independently, applying strategies learnt. As sentences became more challenging, the paired reading technique was used, thus releasing DM form the burden of decoding (Reid, 2009, p. 197). Studies carried out by Evan (1984b) highlighted that that dyslexic children who took part in paired reading showed significant gains in reading, comprehension and vocabulary (cited in Reid 2009, p. 197). The reading of words and sentences was then revisited in the revision session the following day by myself and the class teacher.  During these sessions, DM was able to read sentences independently applying techniques she had learnt.

As DM had only been taught to segment and blend as a reading strategy, she found it difficult to learn blends sc, sp, sn, st. She was able to use them when carrying out an activity immediately after being taught them. However greater consolidation work is required in order to embed these.  This was a little surprising, as DM was able to use on-set and rime confidently by lesson by lesson 9 (Appendix 4). A copy of the reading sheet covered in the lesson was also sent home for homework and given to her class teacher to be carried out as part of the revision session.

Spelling

Spelling cards were used every lesson to learn the spelling of new phonograms. Combley (2001) recognises that the skills for reading are not the same for spelling. Keuning & Verhoeven (2007) (cited in Tops et al, 2014, p.296), state that a child's ability to spell is influenced by a variety of skills, such as phonological skills, orthographic knowledge, morphological awareness and knowledge of spelling rules. It had already been established from DM's assessment that she has weak phonological skills.  Protopapas et al (2012) (cited in Tops et al 2014), classified spelling errors into the following categories:

  • Insertions
  • Omissions
  • Substitutions
  • Transpositions

Analysis of DM's work shows that her spelling errors are due to omissions and substitutions of letters within words (Appendix4, 26.5.1/1.6.16/p.23).  DM's class teacher stated that much of her writing was difficult to decode as DM did not make phonetically plausible attempts in her writing. 

The same routine for learning a new sound was applied to spelling words. It began with myself saying the word; the pupil listening; pupil repeating the word; the pupil spells the word aloud; pupil writes the word, naming each letter as they write. The spelling routine was then followed by dictation of simple sentences with the view of gradually increasing their length. According to Combley (2001), training the auditory memory will impact on a child's ability to express the ideas in written form. Combley believes that there are six stages to writing and each stage is an expansion of the previous stage. Dictation exercises play a role in helping to lengthen the auditory memory span. DM received dictation containing only words that she had learnt. The session began with myself saying the short phrase or sentence and her repeating it before writing. The phrases and sentences were those that DM had covered in the reading activity so that she was familiar with them. This was deliberately done not only to help with the overlearning but also to help build up her confidence with reading, writing and spelling. Magnetic letters were often used by DM to help her to spell words she had difficulty with. DM found it easier to form words using magnetic letters and then transfer them  into her writing. The use of magnetic letters ensured that words were spelt correctly and were also placed in her classroom to help her with spelling during lessons.

Self-esteem

DM's low confidence and self-esteem were evident from the assessment stage. Her body language whilst unable to access the reading test highlighted her lack of self confidence in her ability to complete the task. Meeting with her class teacher also revealed that DM uses avoidance tactics particularly when reading is involved in an activity (reflective journal). Hale (2001) (cited in Reid, 2009, p.35), argues research studies show that a high level of anxiety and frustration is a consistent factor in relation to dyslexia. He further maintains that the effect on a dyslexic children participating in school produces an almost immediate drop in their self-confidence. Thus it was pivotal that exercises that reflected on DM’s achievements and built self-esteem were incorporated into the planning and this was done so in the 'Review' section. 

A solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) approach as advocated by Daki and Savage (2010) was employed. This approach promotes self-direction from the 'client' to enable change in mind set. Emphasis is placed on 'clients' becoming aware of their strengths and their ability to influence change. At the end of each session, DM was encouraged to look at her achievements and strengths, talk about them and at times, record them in a mind map format. 

As the intervention progressed DM grew in confidence and her comments included phrases such as:

  • 'I was happy that I was learning. I was learning more to spell words properly.' (Lesson Plan 1/6/16)
  • 'I liked writing because I can do it now.' (Lesson plan 3/6/16)

Although there were time constraints with some lessons, self-esteem work was carried out in all sessions as its implications were impacting positively on DM's mind set. As each session progressed, DM demonstrated a 'can-do' attitude towards her work, as opposed to showing obvious signs of discomfort. 

Wider School Work

Neanon (2009) argues that in order to support dyslexic learners it needs to be approached strategically as a whole school. Two of Neonon's recommendations, training and information sharing were covered. Insets were held which helped to identify gaps in staff’s own knowledge. Possible strategies and resources were shared. Staff were also made aware of the self-esteem issues dyslexic learners may have and how these could be addressed. Regular meetings with DM’s class teacher helped to highlight difficulties she was having and possible solutions discussed (Appendix 8).

As a result of this work, DM was given greater access to the curriculum through adaptions made to planning and resources such as magnetic letters made available to help ease the discomfort of the inability to spell. 

Review of Intervention

The impact on DM's reading as a result of the intervention was measured using the same reading assessment carried out at the beginning of the programme (Appendix p.1/2). The assessment highlighted that she had made progress with her reading, employing strategies she had learnt to decode words she was previously unable to read.   The fluency had not fully developed however adequate time had not be given to allow this to develop. The use of onset and rime and syllable division were strategies that DM's class teacher had also observed her using during lessons. Progress with writing within the sessions had been made, however this was not transferred to DM’s class work. This could be attributed to an insufficient time frame, staff shortages (absence of TA to assist in consolidation exercises). 

An area where significant progress had been made was self-esteem (appendix5). Although a metacognitive approach attributed to this, however I do believe that some of DM's motivation was based on Ryan and Deci's (2000) self-determination theory (cited in Guthrie & Davis, 2010). In their theory, Ryan and Deci maintain that students acquire the motivations of adults through the internalization. 

'Internalization is the process of taking a value or a goal from a significant other into oneself.' (Ryan & Deci, 200, citied in Guthrie & Davis, 2010, p.70)

When a learner engages in a literacy activity of their own accord, irrespective of reward or benefit, Ryan and Deci believe that they have achieved the highest level of motivational development. DM achieved this level of development as she would try her best to remember what she had learnt and tell me with great pride about how she had completed homework (reflective journal). 

Planning was at times complex and as a result the format was amended on two occasions. Changes enabled lessons to flow at a good pace and ensured crucial teaching objectives took place. All elements of the programme were initially used in order for me to familiarise myself with them and to ascertain suitable approaches to use with my learner. Although this was initially time consuming, it was informative and conducive to outcomes. As the programme developed, DM and myself became familiar with the routines and progress was more evident. DM will continue with the programme however strategies to ensure progress is translated to the classroom will be explored. 

Conclusion

This action research examined a cycle of reflective planning, teaching and evaluations of three consecutive lessons (lesson 9, 10& 11). A significant amount of reading and research was carried to ascertain the most effective way to support a dyslexic learner. Research revealed  a multi-sensory approach that incorporates phonological awareness training is crucial. The Orton-Gillingham approach was found to be one of the successful techniques used and thus was adopted via the Hickey programme. The intervention was amended to meet the needs of the learner whilst simultaneously improving the teaching practice of staff. It succeeded in motivating the pupil to learn as well as developing useful strategies for reading and spelling. The research also aimed at improving the learning environment for dyslexic learners and developing a whole school approach. This will need to continue in order for it to have impact for all dyslexic pupils across the school. 

The true impact of the intervention could not be assessed due to the restricted timespan and scale of this research project.  

References
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Sharon Dheraj Dyslexia Tutor (North West London)

About The Author

I am a Primary Special Educational Needs Coordinator and a specialist teacher of Dyslexia. I am passionate about supporting children to overcome their barriers to learning and helping them to develop strategies for independence.




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